Research is used to seek the truth in anything humankind, which feels it to be useful to its collective progression. Scientific and non-scientific research methods are large contribution to the area of research. Research records the information received through human intervention, human perception, intuition, judgement, and application of common sense. Because the involvement of human perception and human application reigns are supreme in analysing the recorded information, there is an element of doubt. For example, in a research to find out the social ramifications of legalising marijuana on juvenile and pregnant women, how can there be a universal and definitive conclusion that applies to all subjects? Will there be no conflict in interpreting the subject conditions and response among different research? Bowditch, Buono & Stewart (2008) asserted that the practice and research findings in sports vary to a significant extent, citing the different motivation levels of players and the coach. Thus, when the faculty of human interpretation is to be relied upon, there can be continuous conflicts in research findings of similar interest.
Perception is another factor that destroys the stability and conclusiveness of both scientific and non-scientific research. Human perception works through innumerable influences of socio-economic backgrounds, personal experiences, variety of intuitions, and numerous different abilities of understanding a situation. Gummesson (2000) affirmed the incomprehensible difficulties incurred in studying management research cases, where the studying of human behaviour is only limited to the broad sense of reasonable human behaviour, not beyond the obvious and the accepted. Some research would conclude the lack of motivation to be the reason for low commitment, while others have found that reason to be low recognition. Scherer (2001) seconded this view by terming such research as incompetent in identifying the issues responsible for managerial inefficiency. In both cases, the findings are legitimate, but the course of remedial action becomes ambiguous, leading to inaccuracy in resolving the issue identified. Gosling (2011) while discussing online survey as a mode of research agreed to anomalies in the recorded findings and the subsequent impossibility in arriving at a conclusive theory. The answers given by participants have no validity, as it remains largely self-validating, which can never be relied upon as a legitimate opinion.