26 4月 美国论文代写被发现怎么办：银行的货币政策
中央银行利用一系列的策略来确保他们保持国家经济的发展和进步。他们利用多种方法将短期利率因素考虑在内，采取非常规措施，根据货币政策制定财政政策，短期利率是银行所遵循的一种做法。这个系统的有效性已经被广泛讨论(Adrian, and Shin, 2009)。这种设定短期利率的做法已被银行在特定情况下广泛采用。本文对这些方面进行了详细的探讨。
银行在特定情况下制定短期利率是一种惯例。在中央银行中使用的政策工具是短期名义利率。这仅仅意味着央行使用了一种操作程序，其主要目标是控制货币市场利率(Warnock, and Warnock, 2009)。通过设定短期利率，银行可以控制资本、流动性因素，并保持对货币供应的控制(Romer, and Romer, 2000)。央行设定基准利率或回购利率。其他银行使用基本利率从中央银行借款。当央行降低回购利率时，这并不意味着商业银行应该降低利率，但它们是根据指令这么做的。但他们被要求这样做，但商业银行被发现在他们的利率和他们的货币贷款实践的基础上，央行做出了改变(Warnock，和Warnock, 2009)。
在大多数情况下，银行设定短期利率并非出于固有偏好。这通常是基于宏观环境影响的互惠关系(Warnock, and Warnock, 2009)。银行遵循这种做法，以影响宏观经济因素，如价格和通货膨胀或指定的货币总量。银行根据中央银行存款的供应量来决定短期投资。如果他们想降低或降低购买国库券等证券的利息，增加中央银行存款的数量(Woodford, and Walsh, 2005)。如果他们想提高利率，他们就会出售他们的证券。这就是所谓的公开市场销售。通胀和产出不是央行直接控制的变量，但它们是一种手段，以确保通过短期利率实现某种形式的宏观调控。
Central Banks utilize a number of strategies to ensure that they maintain development and progress in the economies of the nation. They utilize a number of methodologies they factor in short term interest rates, adopt unconventional measures based on the monetary fiscal policy Short-term interest rate is a practice by the followed by the banks. The efficacy of this system has been widely debated (Adrian, and Shin, 2009). This practice of setting short term interest rates has been widely used by the banks under specific circumstances. These aspects are probed in detail in this analysis.
Monetary policy options followed by the leading central banks
General monetary policy of banks
Monetary policy open to banks
The second tool that is most commonly used is the portion o f cash that must be held by the company. A decrease in reserve requirements is considered to be an expansionary aspect as it increases the funds and increases money flow. In countries such as America the board of governors usually has more control and autonomy over the changes in the reserve requirements. The fed rarely make any changes in the capital or reserve requirements.
The most commonly used tool used by the major banks to reach their monetary policy goals is the selling and buying of the governmental securities. These tools are utilized by the Federal Reserve Bank or the Centrals Banks of the nations. There are three tools used by the banks they are conventional discount rate, reserve requirement and most commonly used open market operations. The tools are used as a reflection of the expansionary or contractionary policy by the government. These tools are used as a reaction to the activities of the government.
Short-term interest rates
It was a common practice by the banks to set up short-term interest rates under specific circumstances. In the central banks the policy instrument that has been used is short-term nominal interest rate. This simply means that the central banks have used an operating procedure whose primary objective is to control the money market interest rates (Warnock, and Warnock, 2009). The banks by setting up short-term interest rates can have control over the capital, liquidity factor and also maintain control over the money supply (Romer, and Romer, 2000). The central bank set the base rate or the repo rate. Other banks borrow money from this central bank using the base rate. When the central bank reduces the repo rate it does not mean the commercial banks should reduce the money but they do so according to the mandates. But they are required to do so but the commercial banks are found to make changes in their interest rate and in their monetary lending practiced based on the central bank (Warnock, and Warnock, 2009).
In most cases the banks set up short term interest rates not out of inherent preference. It is usually a reciprocity based on the macro environmental impacts (Warnock, and Warnock, 2009). Banks follow this practice so that they influence the macro-economic factors such as prices and inflation or designated monetary aggregates. Banks make decision on the short term investments based on the supply of the central bank deposits. If they want to decrease or reduce the interest that buy securities such as treasury bills and increase the amount of central bank deposit (Woodford, and Walsh, 2005). If they want to increase the interest rate they sell their securities. This is known as the open market sales. Inflation and output are not variables that the central bank has direct control but they do so as a mean to ensure that there is some form of macroeconomic control by means of a short-term interest rate.
There is no stable relationship or a fixed formula under which banks operate. It is based on the deposits and the interest rate in the economy.