21 4月 加拿essay代写：海洋北极环境治理
考虑到环境治理方面的问题很多，这项关于立法框架中代表性不足的研究将是非常广泛的。一方面，以物种为导向的方法存在，它们关注北极熊和白鲸。有一些区域和跨部门的方法与巴伦支海和大东北大西洋有关(Rothwell, 2000, p。125年,p.139)。虽然基于位置的生态系统治理是总体目标，但需要采取实际步骤来理解过去和现在的软法律制定可能需要进行一些更改。提出了立法和治理框架的不同要素，并提出了改革的理由。在北极环境治理中，提出了利益相关者代表的多系统方法。
Environmental governance in the marine Arctic is a complex system. There are formal and informal governance structure presented in the Arctic. The complexity of the governance is caused by these different structures. The countries in the Arctic and outside the territory of the Arctic both try to take an active interest in the environmental governance. An interesting research point to consider here is whether there are there issues of differences in stakeholder representation? If so, what could be done to manage these differences? In any given legislative system, it would be interesting to note the effect of legislation on different stakeholder groups and in the case of the Arctic environmental governance it is even more so because of the inherent complexity of the system.
1.1. Research Background
1.2. Research Question
The research question that will be addressed is ‘Is there an issue of underrepresentation of smaller stakeholders (countries or groups such as indigenous people) in the formation of polycentric soft law for Arctic environmental regulation?’
1.3. Research Question Significance
The reason that this research question was chosen was because where the legislative system is complex, it automatically follows that there would be gaps in legislation (Rothwell 2000). To analyse the existing institutional and legal framework, researchers have established that there is an inherent complexity on how to take into consideration of the local, regional and international scales (OSPAR Commission, 2007). Gaps in governance and stakeholder representation and interests have been identified, but how far are these gaps reflected in the arctic governance and are the smaller stakeholders being underrepresented is a question that has not been addressed in research before.
This study of underrepresentation in the legislative framework would be very broad, considering that environmental governance aspects are in plenty. At one end, species oriented approaches exist which concern themselves with polar bears and beluga whales. There are regional and cross sectoral approaches which concern themselves with Barents Sea and the greater North East Atlantic’s (Rothwell, 2000, p.125, p.139). While place based ecosystem governance is the general aim, practical steps need to be taken to understand how soft law formulations in the past and present might require some changes. Different elements of the legislative and the governance framework are presented, and an argument is made for change. A multi system approach toward stakeholder representation is argued for governance in the Arctic environment.