The Reformation or the Protestant reformation was the religious, cultural and political and the intellectual movement that took place in Europe and the 16th century. This reformation was the cultural upheaval that broke down the Catholic Europe. The protestant reformation established the new belief and societal structure that brought the continent into the modern era. Some of the significant reformers of the Protestant reformation were Martine Luther, Henry VIII and John Calvin. The main aspect of this reformation was that the reformers challenged the Catholic belief and challenged the Catholic definition of Christian Practice. The reformers were responsible for the redistribution of the power that resulted in war and many persecutions.
The Spanish monopoly in Europe was at the centre of the political, economic and social structure of the continent. The most royal monopoly was the Caribbean colonies, as the Caribbean Sea became the major part of Spanish trade, Spanish government and Spanish nationals. All the precious good and money of Europe were drained due to Spanish monopoly. With the spread of reformation, Europe break into Catholic and Protestant countries and the universal authority of the Pope was dismissed. Since the Catholic Church launched the Counter Reformation, it resulted in great struggle between the Catholic and Protestants. Many of the sea captains in the 16th century, especially those who were Dutch and English, were Protestants who stood against the Spaniards due to the religious movement. This religious movement challenged the Spanish monopoly over seas.
The Spanish Armada was the Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in order to invade England. The main aim of this fleet was to invade the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The main reason of this aim of invasion of England was the support of Queen Elizabeth I provided to the Dutch rebels and Spanish Netherlands. The victory of England over Spanish Armada was significant because it destroyed the dominance of Spain over the seas. This victory of England also inspired the new wave of colonization in the New World.