18 6月 学术论文代写：中国的空间规划
世界第四大国家是与14个国家接壤的中国。它从北到南跨度5500公里，从东到西跨度5000公里。正是由于中国经济的显著增长，中国正面临着城乡之间的经济差距问题，贫富差距越来越大(Booth, 2011, p.22)。西部内陆地区的经济发展水平和城市化水平与东部沿海地区相比存在差异，导致两个地区之间的收入差距进一步扩大。
我国处于快速发展和城市化进程中的城市缺乏发展的时间。气候僵化的城市应该致力于培育能够自然生长数百年，并在数百年里不断变化的花园(Owens, and Cowell, 2011)。生物系统必须得到发展，因为它们自大约40亿年前进化以来已经变得复杂。在气候变化剧烈的城市中，生物系统通过不断的改造，使物种得以生存。为了在生态系统上有效地工作，城市必须以建立有效和刚性的城市结构为目标，以连接和区分各种力量来工作。
在不同尺度下，弹性城市呈现出不同的连通性和结构。中国空间规划的各个离散学科包括城市规划、交通规划、环境规划以及与土地利用相关的规划等(Sturzaker, and Shucksmith, 2011, p.182)。空间规划还包括社区规划和经济规划。它是在国际、国家、区域和地方各级进行的，构成了空间规划创作的基础。
空间规划策略是通过尺度、细粒多样性、致密化、功能灵活性、协同作用、城乡一体化、高度互联网络、绿化和水循环利用等原则，为当代中国城市发展提供自然演化系统结构弹性。在中国，为空间规划和领土发展制定的政策有三个层次，即社会经济、国家一级的土地利用规划和城乡规划(Ball, 2011, p-354)。这些社会经济计划草案是在县、省和地级拟订的。然后将县、国家、地、省、乡一级规划形成国家空间规划或土地利用规划。城市系统规划、村庄规划、乡镇规划是国家、村、县、省、地各级城乡规划的组成部分。
The fourth largest country in the world is China sharing its borders with 14 countries. It is having a span of 5,500 km from north to south and 5,000 km from east to west. It is due to the remarkable economic growth in China the country is facing economic disparity problems between urban and rural areas that are increasing the gap between rich and poor (Booth, 2011, p.22). There are differences between the economic development and urbanization levels of western inland regions in comparison to the eastern coastal regions and this had resulted in income disparities between two regions to widen.
The cities of China in race of rapid development and urbanization are lacking developing time. The cities that have rigid climate should work for nurturing gardens that will for centuries grow naturally and transform for centuries (Owens, and Cowell, 2011). Living systems must be developed as they have become complex since their evolution about four billion years ago. The survival of species was permitted by the living systems in the rigid climate cities with the help of constant transformations. For working effectively on the ecological systems the cities have to work with connecting and differentiating forces with an aim of creating efficient and rigid urban structures.
For various scales different connectivity and structures are presented by the resilient cities. The various discrete disciplines of spatial planning in China include urban planning, planning of transportation, environment planning and planning related to usage of land etc. (Sturzaker, and Shucksmith, 2011, p.182). There are various other areas that comprise of spatial planning are community and economic planning. It is conducted on various levels such as international, national, regional and local which form the basis of the creation of spatial plan.
The spatial planning strategies are planning to give the contemporary development of urban China by providing them with natural evolutionary systems structural resilience with various principles such as Scaling, Fine Grain Diversity, Compact Densification, Functional Flexibility, Synergy, Urban-Rural Integration, Highly Connected Networks and Greening and Water Recycling etc. In China the policies framed for spatial planning and territorial development have three layers i.e. socio-economic, land-use plans at national level and rural and urban plans (Ball, 2011, p-354). The drafts of the socio-economic plans were made at county, provincial and prefectural levels. Then the county, national, prefectural provincial and township level plans are formed as National spatial or land-use plans. The urban system plans, village plans and township plans are parts of Urban and rural plans that are formed at national, village, county, provincial and prefectural levels.