01 6月 申请大学的personal statement：优惠贸易安排(pta)
自第二次世界大战以来，由于优惠贸易安排(pta)数目的增加引起了大量的兴趣，这种安排对经济和政治产生了影响。对于pta的成长，虽然研究的不多，但是影响pta成长的因素很多。本文的主要目的是评估导致PTAs增长的原因(Mansfield and Pevehouse, 2013)。本文分析的PTA扩张最关键的因素是，当PTAs所呈现的成员表现出较高的贸易开放程度时，其次是PTA成员的分布是均匀的，这是非常高的。一篇文章指出，PTA增加了许多新成员，并将继续在全球体系中增加更多的新成员。PTA的目标是群体扩张(Missios, Saggi和Yildiz, 2016)。PTA市场有充分的发展机会，这是有原因的，也是有保证的。本文调查了有多少个国家将成为PTA成员(Missios, Saggi and Yildiz, 2016)。还有一件事，本文调查了PTA只给予那些在政治和社会上与PTA现有成员相匹配的国家优惠，然后这些国家就可以成为PTA成员(Karacaovali and Limao, 2008)。
通过分析一些pta扩张失败的原因，解决这一问题是本文的主要目的。本文共分为三个部分。首先，要找出是否有任何pta形成和膨胀的轮廓。PTA成员进入其他成员市场，以发展经济为目标(Missios, Saggi和Yildiz, 2016)。
其次，本文分析了影响多边贸易协定发展的因素，分析了多边贸易协定发展的动因。扩大多边贸易协定规模的主要原因是，现有成员贸易开放程度高，各成员分布标准化。已经发现新成员不断加入PTAs (Missios, Saggi和Yildiz, 2016)。此外，pta的目标之一是在大群体中发展。pta市场有扩张的可能，但目前还没有多少迹象表明这一点。一篇关于哪些国家成为pta成员的论文最终对其进行了研究。一篇论文指出，PTA通过只加入那些在政治和经济上与现有成员国相当的国家来扩张，也发现了这一点(Ghosh and Yamarik, 2004)。
There has been effect on the economic and politics since World War II because of substantial interest generated by the growing number of Preferential trading arrangements (PTAs). For the growth of PTAs, not much research has been conducted but still there are many factors, which give rise for the growth of PTAs. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate what are the reasons, which help in the growth of PTAs (Mansfield and Pevehouse, 2013). The most crucial factor analysed by this paper for the expansion of PTA is that when high degree of trade openness is displayed by the PTAs presented member and second is that the distribution of the members of PTA, which is very high, is uniform. A paper that PTA has added many new members and it will keep adding more new members throughout the global system has found it out. The aim of PTA is to expand in groups (Missios, Saggi and Yildiz, 2016). There are full chances for the expansion of the market of PTA because there are some reasons, which give surety for it to happen. It has been investigated by this paper that how many states are going to be the member of PTA (Missios, Saggi and Yildiz, 2016). One more thing, which this paper has investigated that PTA gives preference to only those countries that are politically and socially matches with the existing members of PTA and after that, they can be the members of PTA (Karacaovali and Limão, 2008).
Summary and Critique
By analysing the factors that what is the reason for some PTAs to expand and other fails to do it, to solve this problem is the main aim of this paper. This paper has been divided into three parts. First, to find, was there any outline PTAs formation and expansion. Members of PTA access with the market of other members with the aim to develop the economy (Missios, Saggi and Yildiz, 2016).
Secondly, it was analysed by this paper that what are the factors, which helped for the growth of multilateral PTAs, and what was their motive in doing so. For the magnification of the multilateral PTAs, the main reason is that, the existing members show a high degree of trade openness and there is standardization in the distribution of all the members. It has been found out that new members keep joining PTAs (Missios, Saggi and Yildiz, 2016). In addition, one of the objectives of PTAs is to develop in large groups. There is probability for the expansion of the market for PTAs and for it, few indications have been shown. A paper that which countries becomes the member of PTAs has finally investigated it. A paper that PTA expands by joining only those states, which are politically and economically comparable with the existing members, has also found it out (Ghosh and Yamarik, 2004).