21 9月 美国论文代写：外部整合机制
这些公司必须在三种不同的适应、聚集和套利的选择中做出选择。同样重要的是，要保持组织类型，并且必须选择适合该特定公司的目标和目标的选项。套利最适合于sk – ii项目，因为它是一个垂直的业务。它也适当注意到供应管理对需求的响应(Dyer,2014)。可以说，宝洁和sk – ii项目在三种差异管理模式中都做得很好，因为在遵循的策略中存在许多环孔。其中一个主要问题是纠纷管理。由于在宝洁的业务外包经常发生纠纷，因此很难处理。越来越多的政党介入，使得管理所有的运作变得极其困难。当企业的利益相关者属于不同的国家时，利益冲突就会加剧(Sinclair,2007)。为了处理这些冲突，每个部门都分配了自己的职责，并建议将他们的行动范围限制在那个特定的部门。这一策略被认为是非常成功的，确保了宝洁的AAAs。
The discussed companies try to blend several A’s by following external integration strategies. P&G Japan relied on joint ventures to get the products developed and to transfer the manufactured products to destinations. Another challenge that was faced by the company is to create a balance between economies of scale and adaptation to local conditions. Larger goals of firms like P&G is always to manage the difference that exists in the business conditions across different countries (Prasad, 2009). Differences are always faced by P&G Japan either on physical terms or otherwise. The firm responds to challenge of difference management by following the strategy of standardization and local responsiveness. The adoption of tools to manage differences depends upon the business conditions faced by the firm at each point of time.
The firms have to choose among the three different options of adaptation, aggregation and arbitrage. It is also important to keep in view the organizational type and must select that option which better suit the goals and objectives of that particular firm. Arbitrage suits best to SK-II Project because it is a vertical business. It also pays proper attention to management of supply in response to demand (Dyer, 2014). It can be said that P&G and SK-II Project are doing well in all the three modes of difference management because many loop holes exist in the strategies being followed. One of the major concerns is that of dispute management. Due to outsourcing of business in P&G often disputes arise that become very hard to tackle with. Involvement of more and more parties makes it extremely difficult to manage all the operations properly. Conflict of interest gets intensifies when stakeholders of the business belong to different nations (Sinclair, 2007). In order to deal with the conflicts each department is assigned its own duties and it is recommended to limit their scope of actions to that particular department. This strategy is considered to be very successful among all that ensure AAAs of P&G.