美国大学申请文书:批判性思维

28 3月 美国大学申请文书:批判性思维

美国大学申请文书:批判性思维

作者运用了西奥多·罗特克的诗歌,以及课堂上学生和教授之间的意见冲突。教授认为这首诗是一位勤奋的中产阶级父亲写的,他也有时间和孩子们在一起,时间是如此宝贵,以至于小男孩把它等同于像死一样坚持下去。学生们觉得这首诗反映了一位酗酒的父亲。这里的文化改变了人们对事物的看法。这首诗创作的年代也与现在的时代相差甚远,孩子们看到的是一种更积极的养育方式,中产阶级的价值观反映出更敏感的父亲。在文化适应过程中,学生们会将价值观内化到这样一种程度,以至于他们对一切都看得很刻板。在实际生活中,这使他们更难解决问题。思维的僵化不支持从不同的角度思考。二分法的世界对个人来说没有意义,因为他们根深蒂固的假设和批判性思维受到了挑战。摆脱这些挑战的唯一方法是质疑文化以及文化如何赋予一个人的主导思想。文化神话必须被质疑,必须被分析,另一方面,矛盾的神话也必须不被拒绝,但至少必须被考虑。

美国大学申请文书:批判性思维

批判性思维需要两个重要因素。理解主动阅读和对话的力量是这两个要素。对话的力量帮助读者在对话和辩论的基础上进入一种批判性的思维方式。这有助于思考者就他们所阅读的主题彼此进行积极的讨论。在这里,参与能更好地激发智力。第二个要素是关于主动阅读。一个积极的读者在深入阅读文本之前,会略过文本,在文本中找到核心观点,并写下他的问题和思考过程。在以预写的形式写下一些问题或想法时,积极的读者将自己与文本连接在一个更为关键的上下文中。当他们第二次深入阅读文本时,积极的读者不仅会寻找与他们所发展的思想的联系,而且会为他们第一次阅读文本时产生的问题寻找答案。积极的读者也应该在文本中做笔记,以确保他们理解文本的观点,而不仅仅是作者的意图。除此之外,读者还可以通过通道进行连接,从一个通道穿梭到另一个通道。

批判性思考者是由大学教育造就的。根据这本书的这一章,这个人积极地参与成为一个批判性的思考者。《重读美国》这本书的结构是这样的:它将帮助读过这本书的人成为一个批判性的思考者。这些章节帮助人们克服有争议的想法,获得激进的观点。这本书既不是关于平权行动,也不是关于公共问题。它包括广泛的选择,从不同的来源,专门设计来帮助读者发展他们的批判性思维技能。阅读使读者能够参与到对话中来,并提出问题以更好地理解他们。

美国大学申请文书:批判性思维

The author makes use of the poem by Theodore Roethke and of the conflict in opinion which caused different opinions in a class between students and the Professor. The Professor viewed the poem as being that of a hardworking middle class father who also found time to spend with his kids and the time was so precious that the small boy equates it to hanging on like death. The students felt the poem reflects a father with an alcoholic abuse problem. Culture here changes how people perceive things. The time, in which the poem was written is also far removed as in current times, children see parenting in a more positive style with middle class values reflecting more sensitive fathers. In acculturation, the students would have internalized values to such an extent that they see everything rigidly. In practical life this makes it more difficult for them to work out problems. The rigidity of thinking does not support thinking from different perspectives. The world of dichotomies does not make sense to the individual because their ingrained assumptions and herein critical thinkers are challenged. The only way to come out of these challenges is to question culture and the dominated thinking that how culture imparts to one. Cultural myths have to be questioned and have to be made open to analysis and on the other hand, contradictory myths must also not be rejected but must at least to be considered.

美国大学申请文书:批判性思维

Two important elements are required for critical thinking. Understanding active reading and the power of dialogues are these two elements. The power of dialogues helps the reader to enter into a critical thinking style based on dialogues and debates. This helps the thinker to enter into active discussions with one another on the subject that they read. Intellectual stimulation is better here with participation. The second element is about active reading. An active reader skims the text, finds core points in the text and writes down his questions and thought processes before reading the text in depth. In writing down some questions or ideas in the form of prewriting, the active reader connects themselves in a much more critical context with the text. The second time when they read the text in depth, the active reader will not only seek connections with the ideas they developed, but will also seek answers for the questions that arose in their mind when they first read the text. The active reader should also make notes in the text in order to ensure that they understand the text in their perceptions and not just how the writer intends it. In addition to this the reader would also connect across passages and shuttle from one to another.

The critical thinker is created out of a college or University education. According to this chapter of the book, the person actively gets involved into becoming a critical thinker. The book Rereading America is structured such that it would help the person read the book to become a critical thinker. The chapters help the person overcome controversial thoughts and acquire radical perspectives. The book is neither about affirmative action nor is about public issues. It comprises a wide selection from different sources specifically designed to help the reader in developing their critical thinking skills. The readings enable the reader to join in the conversation and come up with questions for understanding them better.