This attribute of a culture refers to the extent to which people of a society are programmed to tolerate delays in their satisfaction of social, emotional and economic needs (Gesteland, 2002). Time-wise orientation is evaluated through metric called LTO (Long term orientation index). Societies with lower LTO believes in steadfast actions, their implementations and results. These people are usually take job stress and are more likely to be anxious in haphazard situations, while these people are good at meeting the deadline. On the other hand, higher LTO societies believe in long term planning and implementations. They do not expect steadfast results of their planning and implementations. These people are likely to absorb social, economic and job pressures. Higher LTO societies usually succeed in their planning through steady and continual efforts towards a long- term goal.
This is the sixth element of Hofstede’s cross cultural dimension. This dimension divides the societies into two types: indulgent and restraint. An indulgent society is known for free provision of basic human needs and allows its members to live freely and enjoy their life. Indulgent societies promote leisure activities, fun, sports, social norms, having friends and taking out time for social life. Happiness is considered very important in indulgent society. Indulgent societies have very loose principles on sexual mores and ethical disciplines. On the other hand, restraint societies are focused on ethics, cynicism, and pessimism. Social relations, and family and friends do not hold much importance in restraint societies. It has been observed that people in indulgent societies are happier and healthier than the people in restraint societies. Indulgence or restrain of a culture is measured through a metric IND (Indulgence index).
After examining the Hofstede’s cultural dimension, a real life case is studied in order to critically analyze and understand the Hofstede’s dimensions. There are several cases which deal with cross- cultural environments. In some cases, examiners learn from success of the organization while in other cases, examiner learns from failure stories and the reasons of failure thereof. Here a failure case has been selected to review, as the failure case opens more aspects of the case than a success story. The selected case is the Iridium Project.