27 3月 多伦多大学代写：会计准则
会计准则(IFRS)是由不同国家的国际会计准则委员会(IASB)制定并提出的。然后，国际会计准则理事会(IASB)的成员根据全球金融和政治形势对这些标准进行校对和修改。因此，可以看出，这些会计准则或会计准则的编制和列报是基于可能影响或不影响不同国家的全球金融和政治形势(Ahmed et al.， 2016)。不论一国的经济状况和财政状况如何，该国的会计准则或标准对该国的整个商业组织都是统一的。因此，某些组织的财务报告受到特定国家经济或金融状况的影响，可能会产生误导。经济或金融状况可能不会反映在本组织的财务报表中，但全球正在发生的事情可以反映出来。缺乏统一的会计准则和规则的另一个原因是不同国家在法律结构和实践上的差异，以及在财务事项上遵循的传统。国际会计准则委员会(IASB)与其他国家的成员协商，制定会计交易记录的规则和标准。国家的法律结构包括与所得税部门、地方当局和许多其他监管机构等不同监管机构的合规性(勒让科娃，2016)。
换句话说，可以说会计准则或规则在很多方面不符合社会规范。从社会规范或企业社会责任中获得的利益或经济利益难以确定并记录在财务报表中。没有会计准则来评估这些活动的经济效益。这导致了在财务报表中对社会活动的优势进行不恰当和不均衡的记录(Preiato et al.， 2015)。另一个令人关注的领域是会计人员的个人判断和经验，它限制了从确定的或统一的会计标准实现财务报告的一致性。各商业机构均委任会计师负责财务管理及记录商业交易。每一个会计或财务管理团队都有不同的认知、经验和知识基础。财务报表或报告的一致性要求会计人员的经验和知识的一致性，这在全球范围内是不可能的。可以将任何特定的支出视为资本支出，也可以将此类支出视为收入支出(Mugge and Stellinga, 2015)。
Accounting standards are based on global conditions
Accounting standards or rules of recording and presenting financial statements (IFRS) are developed and presented by International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) of different countries. These standards are then proof read and modified as per the global financial and political situations by the members of International Accounting Standard Board (IASB). Thus, it can be observed that these accounting standards or accounting rules of preparation and presentation are based on global financial and political situation that may or may not impact different counties (Ahmed et al., 2016). Accounting rules or standards are uniform to the entire business organisation in any country irrespective of economic condition and financial condition of such country. Therefore, financial reports of some organisation that has impacted with economic or financial conditions of particular country can be misleading. Economic or financial conditions may not get reflected in the financial statements of the organisation, but what is happening globally can be reflected. Another reason of lack of uniform accounting standards and rules is difference in legal structure and practices and followed tradition in terms of financial matters in different countries. International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) in consultation with other country members develops rules and standards for recording of accounting transaction. Legal structure of country includes compliances with different regulatory authorities like income tax department, local authorities and many other regulatory bodies (Legenkova, 2016).
Legal structure and accounting standards
Laws of countries formulated by government and other regulatory bodies need to be integrated with accounting standards and IFRS. In other words, it can be said that accounting standards or accounting rules cannot override laws prevailing in different countries. Hence, this is another obstacle in brining uniformity with the help of accounting standards or International financial reporting standards. Recent development in corporate social responsibility and corporate governance many business organisations have come forward for such recent development. Many business organisations have been taking various steps and actions for comforting to corporate social responsibility measures (Bushma and Piotroski, 2006). These activities or actions require economic flow of business resources; therefore, these should be recorded in the financial statements of business organisations. There are no clear instructions or standards that shall be followed to record such transactions or activities. There is possibility of undertaking these actions of corporate social responsibility at different level by business organisation and recording of same can be difficult.
In other word, it can be said that accounting standards or rules does not comply with social norms in many ways. Advantage or economic benefits from social norms or corporate social responsibility is difficult to established and record in financial statements. There is no accounting standard for evaluating the economic benefit from such activities. This has lead to undue and uneven recording of advantages of social activities in financial statements (Preiato et al., 2015). Another area of concern that puts limitation in achievement of uniformity in financial reporting from defined or uniform accounting standards is personal judgement and experience of accountants. Every business organisation has appointed accountants for financial management and recording of business transactions. Each and every accountants or financial management team has different perception, experience and knowledge base. Bringing uniformity in financial statements or reports requires uniformity in experience and knowledge of accountants and it is impossible at global level. It is possible that one can treat any particular expenditure as capital expenditure and other can treat such expenditure as revenue expenditure (Mügge and Stellinga, 2015).