16 4月 assignment代写：马斯洛和赫茨伯格理论
马斯洛需求理论指出，人们需要有一个金字塔层次的需求，需要从底层到顶层得到满足。员工最初的需求是生理需求、安全需求、安全需求、尊重需求，最终达到自我实现的需求(Robbins, DeCenzo & Coulter, 2008)。需求金字塔可以分为不足需求和成长需求。缺乏性需求包括生理需求和安全需求。随之而来的是自尊和自我实现的成长需求。如果人们的不足需求得不到满足，他们就不会按照工作的需要去做。这一理论意味着管理者需要有一个安全的工作环境，在这个环境中，员工的服务可以得到适当的报酬(Jawahar & McLaughlin, 2001)。例如，裁员的威胁，工作的不安全感会导致员工生产力的损失。管理者需要确保员工的成长和不足需求得到适当的解决，以确保有必要的生产力。
员工的激励因素有外在激励因素和内在激励因素。外在激励是指员工的有形的基本需求。这些是马斯洛需求层次结构中提到的较低层次。这些外部因素被称为公司的卫生因素(Jawahar & McLaughlin, 2001)。员工的内在激励因素是成长类别。这些都是公司成长的动力因素。管理者应该理解并为员工提供成长的空间。这应该超过传统的工作场所需求范围。由于它作用于这两个变量，赫茨伯格理论也被称为双因素理论。
To address this paradigm, the theory of Maslow and Herzberg can be applied. A combination of these two theories can be used to address the needs of the employees.
Maslow theory of needs state that the people need to have a pyramid hierarchy of needs that need to be satisfied from the bottom layer to the top. The initial needs of the employees are physiological needs, safety needs, security needs, esteem needs and eventually reach the self-actualization needs (Robbins, DeCenzo & Coulter, 2008). The pyramid of needs can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The deficiency needs are the physiological and the safety needs. This is followed by the growth needs of self-esteem and self-actualization. If the deficiency needs of the people are not satisfied, they will not perform according to the needs of the job. This theory implies that the managers need to have a safe working environment where the employees are paid properly for their services (Jawahar & McLaughlin, 2001). For example, the threat of layoff, job insecurities can lead to loss in productivity of the employee. Managers need to ensure that the growth and the deficiency needs of the people are properly address to ensure that there is the required productivity.
Apart from this theory, the Hertzberg theory can also be applied to ensure the employee motivation. Hertzberg theory states that there are two broad factors. It is the motivating factors and the demotivating factions. The demotivating factors are known as the hygiene factors. This was the pioneering theory that is used to explain the broader spectrum of employee motivation. It was also the first theory to point out that by satisfying the hygiene factors people would not be necessarily motivated.
The motivating factors of the employees are the extrinsic and the intrinsic motivates. The extrinsic motivators refer to the tangible basic needs of the employees. These are the lower levels mention in Maslow hierarchy of needs. These extrinsic factors are referred to as the hygiene factors of the company (Jawahar & McLaughlin, 2001). The intrinsic motivating factors for the employees are the growth categories. These are known as the motivating factors for growth of the company. The managers should understand and provide the scope of growth for the employees. This should be more than the traditional scope of workplace requirements. Since it operates on these two variables, Hertzberg theory is also known as the two factor theory.
The application of this theory on the application of this company has been probed in the subsequent section.